What is Dissociative Identity Disorder?
Dissociative Identity Disorder, or previously known as Multiple Personality Disorder until 1994 when the DSM-IV 4th revised edition was published. The essential feature of Dissociative Identity Disorder is the presence of two or more distinct identities or personality states that recurrently take control of behaviour. There is typically one ‘primary’ personality, and treatment for this disorder is often sought out by this primary alter. Often there are two to four personalities by the time that treatment is sought out, but there is a distinct pattern of more emerging during the course of therapy. The personalities within DID are often as complex as any human you would meet on the street, each having their own speech and behaviour patterns and tics, memories, personal relationships, age, gender, range of vocabulary, and general knowledge. All of these facets determine what the personality will do next.
It’s quite common for the personalities present to be very different and even the opposites of each other in many ways, and the extent of their differences can go so far as having a different dominant hand for writing. It has been known that alternate personalities will have different eyeglass prescriptions (and will complain about wearing the wrong one), medication prescriptions (as they will take themselves to the doctor as well), and may even claim to have allergies to things that the dominant personality does not. It is not entirely uncommon for the personalities to be ‘aware’ of the other ones in the sense that they may have the voices of the others echo in their unconscious - but they will not know to whom these ‘voices’ belong. The number of reported identities can range from as low as 2 to more than 100. Half of reported cases include individuals with 10 or fewer identities. Alternate identities have been seen taking ‘control’ in sequence, one often at the expense of another. Many personalities deny the existence of others, but some personalities have been seen to be extremely critical of or in conflict with another. In rare cases, one or more ‘powerful’ dominant personalities will “allocate time” for the others to expose themselves.
DID is not viewed as conscious deception. The issue for DID is not whether it is real, but rather how it develops and is maintained.
A split in the personality wherein two or more fairly separate and coherent systems of being exist alternately in the same person is very different from any recognised symptoms of schizophrenia.
What are the Symptoms of DID?
- Gaps in memory which can not be explained by general forgetfulness. These can go from periods of hours to days. All personalities present in DID present this symptom, so gaps in memory are asymmetrical. The more passive the personality is in manifestation, the fewer memories it has. This is in contrast to the more dominant personalities, which will have fuller, whole, more complete memories.
- If one of the present alters has a tendency for self harm, people with DID will have inexplicable wounds on their body.
- Rapid blinking, facial changes, changes in voice (tone, depth control) and demeanor, or disruption in the individual’s train of thoughts are all sign of a ‘switch’ in personality.
- Auditory or visual hallucinations - this is thought to be caused by a non-controlling personality unable to ‘get out’ and control the body, and these often manifest in auditory hallucinations such as hearing orders being given.
- Less of biographical memory for extended periods of time in childhood and adolescence, for early onset.
- Substance abuse.
- Persistent headaches.
- Sudden phobia onset.
- Suicidal ideation and attempts.
- Sexual dysfunction.
- Self-harming behaviour.
Who tends to get DID and what causes it?
This disorder is three to nine times more common in women than it is in men, and can begin in childhood and not be diagnosed until adulthood. Females with DID tend to have 15 personalities on average, whereas males with DID often only have 8 personalities on average. There is an average 6 to 7 year gap from first report of DID symptoms to diagnosis of DID. Several studies suggest that DID is more common in first degree relatives of someone with DID than within the general population. This disorder is often comorbid (co-occurring) with disorders like Major Depressive Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Somatization Disorder.
People with DID have frequently reported a history of severe physical and sexual abuse, most especially during childhood. There is a controversial debate around the validity of these reports, as people with DID are statistically shown to be highly susceptible to suggestive influences, however many of these reports can be confirmed with objective evidence, and as not everyone with sexual abuse in their history develops DID, there is the theory that there is a diathesis which spurs the creation of the disorder. One theory is that people who develop DID have very high levels of fantasy, and that the dissociation from the trauma through fantasy created splits within the persona. Another theory states that DID may be an enactment of learned social roles. This is due to the fact that more alters tend to appear in adulthood and within therapy, typically due to suggestions by the therapist.
It is hypothesized that individuals suffering from DID have an insecure or disorganized attachment style because they were exposed to the chaotic behaviour of their caregiver. A study in Canada confirms that attachment styles has a significant link to rates of dissociative symptom reports.
How is DID treated?
Treatment for DID is complex and requires heavy use of psychotherapy, where the therapist and the client work in tandem to create a cohesion between all of the personalities if possible. Psychotherapy will also address the natural issues of anxiety caused by the disorder within the client and will work to prevent the manifestation of a comorbid anxiety disorder. EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing) is a therapy which is used most often with sufferers of PTSD but has recently been applied to DID sufferers with positive results. Certain behavioural therapists will go about treating this by only responding to a single personality, though this is generally looked down upon within the psychological community.
All information for this post is based on data from the DSM-IV-TR.
"Oh, it’s video."
News Anchor in my area loses it over a Fat Cat that likes to swim.
The West Wing Rewatch
: Bartlet & Leo in ‘Bartlet for America’ (3x09)
It been blown out of proportion from what I have seen. The general is that people don’t like how the show has been handled, either writing, the cast being dicks, queerbaiting, etc. It is basically a collective of ‘if you are disgruntled with the show, feel free to blackout with everyone else’. I am sure some people probably are not watching because of their anger towards how minority groups have been handled, but it isn’t the overarching theme of it. It is just are you sick of bullshit, yes okay cool, feel free to join the not watching party.
what the teen wolf fandom said: wow, we really miss stiles and derek having scenes together and being forced-allies-turned-friends. this new season should have more of that. please. pretty, pretty please?
what jeff davis heard: wow, we really hope that you never have stiles and derek in the same room together for longer then ten seconds ever again. and an actual conversation??? forget that shit.
Derek Hale is so important
*makes all text posts in this format from now on* this is fun
So I was telling some of my friends I work with about how when everyone else was being princesses and cheerleaders and the spice girls for halloween I had turned to my mother and said,
"Mum. I want to be an Alien."
So she made me this great Alien costume here, which looking back now is the funniest photo ever and I feel like this tells you a lot about me as a child and me now.
This is like the coolest halloween photo from the 90s that I’ve ever seen.
I don’t get why shipping and fanfiction seems such a difficult thing for the cast and crew of Teen Wolf.
Other panels at comic con acknowledged it and even had fun with it, like the Agents of Shield where Chloe Bennett choose Skimmons as a better choice, Or Stephen Amell talking about Olicity…
Well, some people in the fandom are planning a “blackout” and the idea is that if their ship is not canon (it’s majority Sterek shippers participating but their are also a few Stydia shippers and a few also participating) they will boycott Teen Wolf tonight and the goal is to make the ratings severely low so that the producers will be forced into making their ships canon.
The idea is not very well thought out and selfish because if people stop watching the show it will get canceled and then all the actual true fans of Teen Wolf would loose it.
The Blacklight Party
darkstilestho on Twitter came up with the an idea that should counter act the boycott called the “Teen Wolf Blacklight Party” everyone will wear all black and use glow sticks (in my case I’m using the glow light app) and watch tonight’s episode in Pitch Black Darkness also you’re supposed to post photos on Twitter/Tumblr as the night goes on It sounds really fun to me and I will DEFINIALLY be participating in the Teen Wolf Blacklight party. As of now over 300 people have committed to it! Hopefully you’ll join us.